WHY DO DISEASES HAVE DIFFERENT NAMES
Diseases are named on the basis of their genetic structure. The World Health Organization along with the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agriculture Organization identify and name the new human disease/s. If a name was given to a new human disease by WHO or other associated organizations following all the standard procedures may or may not be confirmed by the International Classification of Diseases any stages. The International Classification of Diseases, managed by WHO and by its Members, provides a universal name for each human disease according to standard guidelines. The following steps are involved in the naming of a disease-
- THE DISEASE MUST HAVE BEEN RECOGNISED IN HUMANS.
- THE INFECTION, DISEASE OR SYNDROME HAS NEVER BEEN RECOGNISED IN HUMANS.
- THE DISEASE MUST HAVE AN GLOBAL IMPACT.
PRINCIPLES FOR NAMING A DISEASE
- GENERIC DESCRIPTION- It is a condition when we have no sufficient information regarding the disease, infection or syndrome. Then we have to bank on generic information as it gives the most useful data and is never subjected to any change.
- SPECIFIC DESCRIPTION- The condition in which we have sufficient information regarding the disease, infection or syndrome. That will not change.
- PATHOGEN- The pathogen is a causal agent. Therefore it should not be added to the name of a particular disease. As it may be a causal agent for other infections too.
- NAME- The name should be easy in pronunciation. It must follow the guidelines of International Classification Of Diseases.
WHAT SHOULD BE IN THE DISEASE NAME AND WHAT NOT AS PER WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
|NAME MAY INCLUDE||EXAMPLE|
|GENERIC DESCRIPTIVE TERMS (CLINICAL SYMPTOMS, PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND ANATOMICAL OR PATHOLOGICAL REFERENCES/SYSTEMS AFFECTED)||RESPIRATORY, NEUROLOGIC, HEMORRHAGIC.|
HEPATITIS, ENCEPHALITIS, ENCEPHALOPATHY, DIARRHOEA, ENTERITIS, IMMUNODEFICIENCY, PALSY.
PULMONARY, CARDIAC, GASTROINTESTINAL, SPONGIFORM.
SYNDROME, DISEASE, FEVER, FAILURE, DEFICIENCY, INSUFFICIENCY AND INFECTION.
|SPECIFIC DESCRIPTIVE TERMS-|
|AGE GROUP, POPULATION OF PATIENTS.||JUVENILE, PEDIATRIC, SENILE, MATERNAL.|
|TIME COURSE, EPIDEMIOLOGY, ORIGIN||ACUTE, SUB-ACUTE, CHRONIC, PROGRESSIVE, TRANSIENT, CONTAGIOUS, CONGENITAL, ZOONOTIC.|
|SEASONALITY||SUMMER, WINTER, SEASONAL.|
|ENVIRONMENT||SUBTERRANEAN, DESERT, OCEAN, RIVER, COASTAL OR SWAMP.|
|CAUSAL PATHOGEN AND ASSOCIATED DESCRIPTORS||CORONAVIRUS, SALMONELLA, INFLUENZA VIRUS, PARASITIC.|
NOVEL, VARIANT, REASSORTENT.
|YEAR OR MONTH OF the FIRST DETECTION||2020, 1/2020|
|ARBITRARY IDENTIFIER||ALPHA, BETA, GAMMA, a,b,c, I, II, III ETC.|
|NAME MAY NOT INCLUDE||EXAMPLE|
|GEOGRAPHIC LOCATIONS||MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME, SPANISH FLU, RIFT VALLEY FEVER, LYME DISEASE, CRIMEAN CONGO HEMORROGHIC FEVER, JAPANESE ENCEPHALITIS FEVER.|
|PEOPLE’S NAME||CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB DISEASE, CHAGAS DISEASE.|
|SPECIES/CLASS OF ANIMAL OR FOOD||SWINE FLU, BIRD FLU, MONKEY POX. EQUINE, ENCEPHALITIS, PARALYTIC SHELLFISH POISONING.|
|CULTURAL, POPULATION, INDUSTRY OR OCCUPATIONAL REFERENCES||OCCUPATIONAL, LEGIONNAIRES, MINERS, BUTCHERS, COOKS, NURSES.|
|TERMS THAT INCITE UNDUE FEAR||UNKNOWN, FATAL, DEATH, EPIDEMIC.|